IEEE CDC'16 Workshop

WS07 - Rich Data Backed Control and Optimization for Smart Cities

Organizers: Rong Su, (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore), (Samual) Qing-Shan Jia (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)

Speakers: Christos G. Cassandras (Boston University), Tariq Samad (University of Minnesota/Honeywell), Karl H. Johansson (KTH), Costas Spanos (University of California, Berkeley), Ardalan Vahidi (Clemson University), Cedric Langbort (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain), Yong Liang Guan (Nanyang Technological University), Necmiye Ozay (University of Michigan), Yilin Mo (Nanyang Technological University),  Fei Miao (University of Pennsylvania), Rong Su, (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore), (Samual) Qing-Shan Jia (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China).

Abstract: A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and commu- nication technology (ICT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage a citys assets. The goal of building a smart city is to improve quality of life by using technology to improve the efficiency of services and meet residents needs. Control and optimization techniques have been playing a major role in this grand en- deavor. In this workshop several active researchers in this fi    will report their recent technical progresses at both individual and program levels on transportation systems, smart buildings, cybersecurity, formal synthesis in power management, and some visionary discussions on the role of cybernetics and domain integration, aiming to showcase some recent achievements and at the same time identify challenges ahead in order to arouse more interests and efforts at a broader societal level to ensure research sustainability.

Target Audience: This workshop consists of two types of presentations: (1) reports of recent individual research progresses on specific topics, e.g., transportation systems, building management, cybersecurity, formal synthesis, and visionary discussions, and (2) showcases of a couple of major research efforts around world on smart transportation and smart buildings. The first type of presentations may require audience to have some technical background in modeling, control and optimization, thus, suitable for researchers and senior graduate students in relevant fields. The second type of presentations is accessible to all kinds of audience, e.g., researchers, engineers and undergraduate/graduate students, due to their illustration nature with minimum technical exposures. To help registered audience better understand the presented materials, a printout of each presentation will be disseminated during the workshop.

List of presenters, together with short bios

1.   Christos G. Cassandras, Boston University

Title: Coordination and Optimal Control of Connected Automated Vehicles in Smart Cities

Brief bio: Christos G. Cassandras is Distinguished Professor of Engineering at Boston University. He is Head of the Division of Systems Engineering, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineer- ing, and co-founder of Boston Universitys Center for Information and Systems Engineering (CISE). He received degrees from Yale University (B.S., 1977), Stanford University (M.S.E.E., 1978), and Harvard University (S.M., 1979; Ph.D., 1982). In 1982-84 he was with ITP Boston, Inc. where he worked on the design of automated manufacturing systems. In 1984-1996 he was a faculty member at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts/Amherst. He specializes in the areas of discrete event and hybrid systems, cooperative control, stochastic optimiza- tion, and computer simulation, with applications to computer and sensor networks, manufacturing systems, and transportation systems. He has published over 350 refereed papers in these areas, and fi e books. He has guest-edited several technical journal issues and currently serves on several journal Editorial Boards, including Editor of Automatica. In addition to his academic activities, he has worked extensively with industrial organizations on various systems integration projects and the development of decision-support software. He has most recently collaborated with The MathWorks, Inc. in the development of the discrete event and hybrid system simulator SimEvents. Dr. Cassan- dras was Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control from 1998 through 2009 and has also served as Editor for Technical Notes and Correspondence and Associate Editor. He was the 2012 President of the IEEE Control Systems Society (CSS). He has also served as Vice President for Publications and on the Board of Governors of the CSS, as well as on several IEEE committees, and has chaired several conferences. He has been a plenary/keynote speaker at numerous interna- tional conferences, including the American Control Conference in 2001 and the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control in 2002, and has also been an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. He is the recipient of several awards, including the 2011 IEEE Control Systems Technology Award, the Distinguished Member Award of the IEEE Control Systems Society (2006), the 1999 Harold Chestnut Prize (IFAC Best Control Engineering Textbook) for Discrete Event Systems: Modeling and Performance Anal- ysis, a 2011 prize and a 2014 prize for the IBM/IEEE Smarter Planet Challenge competition (for a Smart Parking system and for the analytical engine of the Street Bump system respectively), the 2014 Engineering Distinguished Scholar Award at Boston University, several honorary professorships, a 1991 Lilly Fellowship and a 2012 Kern Fellowship. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi. He is also a Fellow of the IEEE and a Fellow of the IFAC.

2.   Ardalan Vahidi, Clemson University

Title: Coordinating Connected Cars and Signals in Smart Cities

Brief bio: Ardalan Vahidi is an associate professor with the department of mechanical engineering, Clemson University, South Carolina. He received the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 2005, the M.Sc. degree in transportation safety from George Washington University, Washington, DC, in 2002, and B.S. and M.Sc. degrees in civil engineering from Sharif University, Tehran, Iran, in 1996 and 1998, respectively. In 2012 2013 he was a Visiting Scholar with University of California, Berkeley and a Visiting Researcher with BMW Group Technology Office USA in Mountain View, CA. His recent research spans topics in automotive control, intelligent transportation systems, and connected vehicle technologies.

3.   Karl Henrik Johansson, KTH

Title: Collaborative Road Freight Transport for Smart Cities

Brief bio: Karl H. Johansson is Director of the ACCESS Linnaeus Centre and Professor at the School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. He is a Wallenberg Scholar and has held a Senior Researcher Posi5on with the Swedish Research Council. He also heads the Stockholm Strategic Research Area ICT The Next Genera5on. He received MSc and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from Lund University. He has held visiting positions at UC Berkeley, California Institute of Technology, Nanyang Technological University, and Institute of Advanced Studies Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. His research interests are in networked control systems, cyber-physical systems, and applications in transportation, energy, and automation systems. He has been a member of the IEEE Control Systems Society Board of Governors and the Chair of the IFAC Technical Commi‘ee on Networked Systems. He has been on the Editorial Boards of several journals, including Automatica, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, and IET Control Theory and Applications. He is currently a Senior Editor of IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems and Associate Editor of European Journal of Control. He was awarded Future Research Leader from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research in 2005. He received the triennial Young Author Prize from IFAC in 1996 and the Peccei Award from the International Institute of System Analysis, Austria, in 1993. He received Young Researcher Awards from Scania in 1996 and from Ericsson in 1998 and 1999. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.

4.   Fei Miao, University of Pennsylvania

Title: Data-Driven Dynamic Robust Resource Allocation in Smart Cities

Brief bio: Fei Miao received the B.Sc. degree in Automation from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, in 2010 and the M.A. degree in Statistics from the dual degree program of Wharton, University of Pennsylvania, in 2015. Currently, she is working toward the Ph.D. degree in the De- partment of Electrical and Systems Engineering at University of Pennsylvania. Her research interests focus on the control aspect of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), include data-driven control frameworks of large-scale interconnected CPSs under model uncertainties, and resilient control frameworks to ad- dress security issues of CPSs. Ms. Miao was a Best Paper Award Finalist at the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS), CPSWeek, in 2015.

5.   Yong Liang Guan, Nanyang Technological University

Title: The NTU-NXP Smart Mobility Test Bed for Connected Cars

Brief bio: Dr. Yong Liang GUAN ( obtained his PhD degree from the Imperial College of London, UK, and Bachelor of Engineering degree with fi class honors from the National University of Singapore. He is now with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, where he was a Head of Division in 2011-2014 and the Director of the Positioning and Wireless Technology Center in 2007-2011. His research interests broadly include coding and signal processing for communication systems, storage systems and information security systems. He has 2 granted patents, and has published an invited monograph, 3 book chapters, and over 300 journal and conference papers. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, and the chair of the Singapore ComSoc Chapter. He has led 12 past and present externally funded research projects on V2X networking, advanced wireless communication techniques, ultra wideband radio, coding and signal processing for tera-bits- per-square-inch magnetic recording, acoustic telemetry for drilling application, etc..

6.   Cedric Langbort, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain

Title: Controlling smart cities: beyond “cybernetics”?

Brief bio: Cedric Langbort is an Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering (with tenure) at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC), where he is also affiliated with the Decision & Control Group at the Coordinated Science Lab (CSL), and the Information Trust Institute. Prior to joining UIUC in 2006, he studied at the Ecole Nationale Suprieure de lAronautique et de lEspace- Supaero in Toulouse (France), the Institut Non-Linaire in Nice (France), and Cornell University, from which he received the Ph.D. in Theoretical & Applied Mechanics in January 2005.  He also spent a year and a half as a postdoctoral scholar in the Center for the Mathematics of Information at Caltech. He works on applications of control, game, and optimization theory to a variety of fi most recently to “smart infrastructures”’ problems within the Center for People & Infrastructures which he co-founded and co-directs at CSL. He is a recipient of the NSF CAREER Award, the advisor of an IEEE CDC best student paper award recipient, has been a subject editor for OCAM, the journal of Optimal Control Applications and Methods, and currently serves as an Associate Editor for Systems & Control Letters.

7.   Tariq Samad, University of Minnesota

Title: Smart Cities: Towards Integrated, Cross-Domain, Human-in-the-Loop Solutions

Brief bio: Tariq Samad recently joined the Technological Leadership Institute at the University of Minnesota after a 30-year career with Honeywell, the last half of which was in the role of Corporate Fellow in Honeywell Automation and Control Solutions. Over his three decades with the company he contributed to and led automation and control technology developments for applications in electric power systems, clean energy, building management, the process industries, automotive engines, un- manned aircraft, and advanced manufacturing. His research interests relate broadly to automation, intelligence, and autonomy for complex engineering systems. Dr. Samad was the President of the American Automatic Control Council for 2014-15 and President of IEEE Control Systems Society in 2009. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and the recipient of a few awards including the 2008 IEEE CSS Control Systems Technology Award, a Distinguished Member Award from IEEE CSS, and an IEEE Third Millennium Medal. He was editor-in-chief of IEEE Control Systems Magazine from 1998 to 2003 and is currently editor-in-chief of IEEE Press. He currently chairs the “Pilot” Industry Commit- tee for IFAC that is developing recommendations for improving university/industry collaborations in control and automation. Dr. Samad holds 20 patents and has authored or coauthored over 100 conference and journal publications. He has also authored one book and edited several books and reports. These include the online report, The Impact of Control Technology, and the Encyclopedia of Systems and Control. Dr. Samad holds a B.S. degree in Engineering and Applied Science from Yale University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University.

8.   Necmiye Ozay, University of Michigan

Title: Large-scale correct-by-construction control synthesis with counting constraints

Brief bio: Necmiye Ozay received the B.S. degree from Bogazici University, Istanbul in 2004, the M.S. degree from the Pennsylvania State University, University Park in 2006 and the Ph.D. degree from Northeastern University, Boston in 2010, all in electrical engineering. She was a Control and Dynamical Systems postdoctoral scholar at the California Ins2tute of Technology, Pasadena between 2010 and 2013. She is currently an assistant professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Dr. Ozays research interests include dynamical systems, control, op2miza2on, formal methods with applica2ons in cyber-physical systems, system iden2fi verifica2on and valida2on, and autonomy and vision. Her papers received several awards including an IEEE Control Systems Society Conference on Decision and Control Best Student Paper Award in 2008. She is a recipient of a 2014 DARPA Young Faculty Award and a 2016 NSF CAREER Award.

9.   Yilin Mo, Nanyang Technological University

Title: Secure Information Fusion in Cyber-Physical Systems

Brief bio: Yilin Mo is an Assistant Professor in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Nanyang Technological University. He received his Ph.D. In Electrical and Computer Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University in 2012 and his Bachelor of Engineering degree from Department of Automa0on, Tsinghua University in 2007.  Prior to his current position, he was a postdoctoral scholar at Carnegie Mellon University in 2013 and California Institute of Technology from 2013 to 2015. His research interests include secure control systems and networked control systems, with applica0ons in sensor networks and power grids.

10.   Costas Spanos, University of California at Berkeley

Title: How to Trim 10 Terawatts of Electricity - Smart Buildings in the Tropics

Brief bio: COSTAS J. SPANOS received the EE Diploma from the National Technical University of Athens, Greece in 1980 and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in ECE from Carnegie Mellon University in 1981 and 1985, respectively. In 1988 he joined the Faculty at the department of Electrical Engineer- ing and Computer Sciences of the University of California at Berkeley. He has served as the Director of the Berkeley Microlab, the Associate Dean for Research in the College of Engineering and as the Chair of the Department of EECS. He works in statistical analysis in the design and fabrication of integrated circuits, and on novel sensors and computer-aided techniques in semiconductor manufac- turing. He also works on statistical data mining techniques for energy efficiency applications. He has participated in two successful startup companies, Timbre Tech, (acquired by Tokyo Electron) and OnWafer Technologies (acquired by KLA-Tencor). He is presently the Director of the Center of Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS) and the Chief Technical Officer for the Berkeley Educational Alliance for Research in Singapore (BEARS).

11.   (Samual) Qing-Shan Jia, Tsinghua University

Title: Controlling the Internet of Things - from Energy Saving to Fast Evacuation in Smart Buildings

Brief bio: (Samuel) Qing-Shan Jia received the B.E. degree in automation in July 2002 and the Ph.D. degree in control science and engineering in July 2006, both from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He is an Associate Professor in the Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems (CFINS), Department of Automation, Tsinghua University. He was a postdoc at Harvard University in 2006, a visiting assistant professor at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 2010, and a visiting associate professor at Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2013. His research interest is to develop theory and methodology for design and optimization of large-scale complex systems through data-driven, statistical, and computational analysis with applications to energy systems, manufacturing systems, building systems, evacuation guidance systems, biological systems, cyber physical systems, and Internet of Things. He is an associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, and Discrete Event Dynamic Systems Theory and Applications. He was the Discrete Event Systems Technical Committee chair in IEEE Control Systems Society from 2012 to 2015. He now serves the Control for Smart Cities Technical Committee chair in IFAC, the Smart Buildings Technical Committee co-chair in IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, and the Beijing Chapter Chair of IEEE Control Systems Society.

12.   Rong Su, Nanyang Technological University

Title: Token-based HVAC Scheduling for Smart Buildings

Brief bio: Dr Rong Su obtained his Bachelor of Engineering degree from University of Science and Technology of China in 1997, and Master of Applied Science degree in 2000 and PhD degree in 2004 both from University of Toronto. Since then he was affiliated with University of Waterloo and Technical University of Eindhoven before he joined Nanyang Technological University in 2010. Dr Su’s research interests include discrete-event system theory, model-based fault diagnosis, operation planning and scheduling and multi-agent systems with applications in flexible  manufacturing, intelligent transportation, human-robot interface, power management and green buildings. He has more than 100 journal and conference publications and 2 patents in the aforementioned areas, and has been involved in several ongoing projects related to smart cities sponsored by Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF), Singapore Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore Ministry of Education (MoE), Singapore Civil Aviation Authority (CAAS) and Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB). Dr Su is a senior member of IEEE, and an associate editor for Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control and Journal of Control and Decision. He is also the Chair of the Technical Committee on Smart Cities in the IEEE Control Systems Society.

Brief synopsis of the workshop content and major topics

Topic 1: Traffic and transport management 

(1) Coordination and Optimal Control of Connected Automated Vehicles in Smart Cities

Abstract: Smart Cities are an example of Cyber-Physical Systems whose goals include improve- ments in transportation, energy distribution, emergency response, and infrastructure mainte- nance, to name a few. A major new element in Smart Cities is expected to be the deployment of Connected Automated Vehicles (CAVs).  We will present a framework for the coordination and decentralized optimal control of CAVs entering a control zone and crossing adjacent inter- sections in an urban area. An optimal control solution, when it exists, allows the CAVs to cross the intersections without the use of traffic lights, without creating congestion on the connecting road, and under the hard safety constraint of collision avoidance. We establish the conditions under which such solutions exist and show that they can be enforced through an appropriately designed feasibility enforcement zone that precedes the control zone. The proposed solution will be demonstrated through simulation considering two intersections located in downtown Boston, with results showing that coordination of CAVs can reduce signifi tly both fuel consumption and travel time while ensuring safety. We will also include some preliminary results on how the use of CAVs may reduce or eliminate the Price of Anarchy in a transportation network.

(2) Coordinating Connected Cars and Signals in Smart Cities

Abstract: Connectivity and autonomy of cars and roadside infrastructure in smart cities  are expected to transform urban transportation. For instance, cooperation  between intelligent cars and intersection control units can harmonize traffic fl w, increase energy efficiency, and enhance safety and  passenger  comfort.  This  talk  takes  a  closer  look  at  some  of  these  potentials.  In one experimental case study we demonstrate that coordination of movement of human-driven connected cars with traffic signals reduces idling and fuel consumption. In this case study we successfully “crowed-source” traffic signal timings from statistical patterns in motion  of  con- nected vehicles in the city of San Francisco. We also discuss the communication protocols and backend computing architecture that we have in place for collecting and processing vehicular data in near real-time and relaying the processed information to subscribing vehicles. Benefits are expected to be higher with autonomous  cars  where  absence  of  a  human  driver  promises more predictability and precise control. We formulate and discuss optimal motion planning algorithms that coordinate movement of autonomous cars and evaluate benefits in simulated scenarios.

(3) Collaborative Road Freight Transport for Smart Cities

Abstract: Freight transport is of major importance for the world economy and is growing thanks to increasing global trade. About three quarters of inland freight transport in the European Union is on roads. It has the potential to go through a dramatic change over the next decades thanks to the recent development of technologies such as wireless communication, cloud comput- ing, sensor devices, and vehicle electronics. They enable a new integrated goods transport system based on optimized logistics, real-time trac information, vehicular communications, collabora- tive driving, and autonomous vehicles. In this lecture, we will discuss challenges in creating a more efficient and sustainable goods road transportation system and how some of them can be tackled with a cyber-physical control approach. In particular, we discuss a method to improve the efficiency of the transportation system by minimizing the number of empty transports and the formation of vehicle platoons to reduce fuel consumption. Several presented methods have been tested on real vehicles on Swedish highways.

(4) Data-Driven Dynamic Robust Resource Allocation in Smart Cities

Abstract: With the transformation to smarter cities and the development of technologies, a large amount of data is collected from networked sensors in real-time. This information pro- vides opportunities to perform various types of control and coordination for large-scale intelligent transportation systems. In this talk, we develop a data-driven robust resource allocation frame- work to consider spatial-temporally correlated uncertainties, motivated by the problem of taxi or self-driving car dispatch under demand uncertainties. We fi present a receding horizon control (RHC) framework to dispatch taxis, which combines highly spatiotemporally correlated demand/supply models and real-time GPS location and occupancy information. The objectives include reducing taxi idle driving distance and matching spatiotemporal ratio between demand and supply for service quality. We then present a robust optimization method to consider closed convex form of spatiotemporally correlated demand model uncertainties. Uncertainty sets of random demand vectors are constructed from data based on theories in hypothesis testing, and provide a desired probabilistic guarantee level for the performance of robust taxi dispatch so- lutions. We prove equivalent computationally tractable forms of the robust dispatch problem using the minimax theorem and strong duality. Trace-driven and trip-driven analysis with real taxi operational record data sets show that the RHC framework and robust dispatch methods reduce the average total idle distance and reduce the demand-supply ratio mismatch error across the city. This is a joint work with Shuo Han and George J. Pappas at University of Pennsylvania.

(5) The NTU-NXP Smart Mobility Test Bed for Connected Cars

Abstract: V2X (Vehicle to Everything) communication refer to a new wireless system that allows vehicles travelling on the road to communicate directly with one another, and with “access points” installed on lamp poles or traffic lights.  This technology promises to enhance road safety, cut driving time, save fuel, augment GPS, drive big data, and automate toll collection or carpark charging. International standards such as the IEEE WAVE suites have been defi Market products have also emerged. In this talk, I will give an overview of the NTU-NXP Smart Mobility Test Bed that features a live campus-wide V2X network based on the IEEE 802.11p and 1609 protocol stack, and share some field experiment and research findings.

Topic 2: Cybernetics and domain integration of smart cities

(1) Controlling smart cities: beyond “cybernetics”?

Abstract: It might come as a surprise and a disappointment to many CDC attendees that the words “cybernetics” and “dynamic systems” are often used with rather negative under- tones and references by social scientists, urban planners, architects, and even civil engineers involved in the design or study of smart cities. For example, in an October 2014 article that heavily drew on Eden Medina’s book “Cybernetic Revolutionaries”, technology writer Evgeny Morozov recounted the ill-fated story of Salvador Allende’s ‘Project Cybersyn’, likening its “mis- guided” (according to him) goals and overall failed engineering design to many current smart city projects. While this castigation of “cybernetics” probably partly stems from some misun- derstandings and, arguably throws away the “baby” (control theory and technology) with the “bath water” (political ideology), it does raise important and legitimate questions for the control theorist which, if taken seriously, can help properly defi the goals, models, constraints, and uncertainties that are so peculiar, yet so essential, to the design and understanding of “smart cities as control systems”. How, for example, do we treat citizens as a part of our models? Does the resulting new technology ultimately make the city fairer and more livable, or only more efficient in a narrowly defi way?  This session will present some of the presenter’s group’s own grappling with those questions, using approaches at the intersection of controls, informa- tion theory, and (behavioral) economics. Most importantly, however, it also intends to be a forum and brainstorming opportunity where all attendees can share opinions and ideas towards reconciling smart cities with controls’ paradigms.

(2) Smart Cities: Towards Integrated, Cross-Domain, Human-in-the-Loop Solutions

Abstract: There is no dearth of “smart” concepts being applied to urban infrastructure. Build- ings, distribution grids, water management, security systems, transportation . . . these and other domains are benefiting from advanced control and optimization technologies. Given the existing interest in these areas, the question arises as to whether smart cities is more than an umbrella term for research that is already being conducted (and, if so, how so).  The answer, I maintain, is that smart cities, as a research area, must focus on the interconnections of the vertical domains and the coordination among their smart solutions. Smart city domains are not islands to themselves; interdependent and holistic control solutions are needed for the sustain- ability of cities and the quality of life of their occupants. I will give several examples of such interdependencies (transportation, energy, and buildings; electricity and water; microgrids). I will also note the role of advances in information and communication technologies, in particular IoT (Internet of Things) platforms, in facilitating the development of such solutions. Finally, cities are ultimately about citizens, and human-in-the-loop aspects must be at the forefront of control applications for smart cities. My presentation will not offer new research results but I hope it suggests directions for research that workshop participants fi     useful.

Topic 3: Smart buildings

(1) Controlling the Internet of Things - from Energy Saving to Fast Evacuation in Smart Buildings

Abstract: There is an increasing interest in connecting things into network (known as the In- ternet of Things) to improve the performance and to provide novel services. Control has a big role here not just to help connecting things together, but also to make things smarter. In this talk, we will focus on a particular type of Internet of Things, namely the smart buildings. There is an increasing demand on energy efficiency, comfort, and safety in buildings. It is possible to achieve these diff t and sometimes conflicting objectives in the same time. Occupant- oriented wireless sensor network plays a key role, which collects information on the demand (what the occupant wants), the supply (what the building can offer), and how the two parts may coordinate with each other (the elasticity of the demand and the supply). We will briefly review the state of the art and the state of practice in this fi      In particular, we will see how to control this Internet of Things to achieve energy saving and fast evacuation in smart buildings.

(2) Token-based HVAC Scheduling for Smart Buildings

Abstract: A new hierarchical distributed architecture for control and scheduling of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) operations in multi-zone commercial buildings is proposed. Each zone has an associated Zone Module responsible for determining its cooling needs which are specified in terms of tokens. Tokens are a surrogate for the amount of chilled air supplied to each zone in a service interval. Token requests are computed by Zone Modules using oc- cupancy forecasts, thermostat information, all available sensor data, and weather forecasts to capture the cooling energy necessary to meet user-specified temperature constraints. A Central Scheduler gathers token requests from all Zone Modules and allocates tokens to minimize the energy consumption of the chiller and fans. Zone Modules maintain and update local ther- mal models based on new measurements and recompute token requests in a model predictive control framework. This distributed control/scheduling approach is robust to varying environ- mental conditions and user constraints. It is scalable to realistic buildings with a large number of zones, and has low deployment cost. The proposed architecture can readily accommodate chiller efficiency through Coefficient of Performance (COP) specifications, as well as constraints on cooling air mass fl w rates, fan capacities, duct pressure distribution, and damper opening constraints. Simulation studies reveal that the proposed approach suffers modest performance loss as compared with centralized non-linear scheduling strategies. These centralized strategies, however, are not scalable to buildings with 300+ zones and suffer prohibitive deployment costs.

(3) How to Trim 10 Terawatts of Electricity - Smart Buildings in the Tropics

Abstract: Buildings consume 70% of the worlds electricity, and 60% of the built environment will be in the tropics by 2050. This is driven both by demographics and by climate change. By then, the electricity consumed by tropical buildings will be almost equivalent to what our entire planet costumes today - unless we make them much more efficient. In this talk I will give an overview of the success of a fi e year, $50M collaboration between UC Berkeley, Nanyang Technological University and the National University of Singapore focusing on this problem. We will talk about novel sensors, controls, data architectures, ACMV technologies, materials and cyber-physical testbeds. We will give examples that show that dramatic, cost-effective energy reduction is possible. Further, smart building can provide ancillary services to the grid, allowing for much more aggressive integration of renewables.

Topic 4: Formal synthesis in smart cities

(1) Large-scale correct-by-construction control synthesis with counting constraints

Abstract: Can we control a swarm of systems and give guarantees on their collec2ve behavior? In this talk I will discuss an instance of this problem: given a large homogeneous collection of dynamical systems and a novel class of safety constraints, called counting constraints, how to synthesize a controller that guarantees the satisfaction of these constraints. Counting constraints impose restrictions on the number of systems that are in a particular mode or in a given region of the state-space over time. I will present an approach for synthesizing correct-byconstruction controllers to enforce such constraints. Our approach exploits the structure of the problem, the permutation invariance of dynamics due to homogeneity and the permutation invariance of counting constraints, to achieve massive scalability. I will discuss several potential applica2ons of this approach in the context of smart cities and illustrate it on the problem of coordinating a large collection of thermostatically controlled loads while ensuring a bound on the number of loads that are extracting power from the electricity grid at any given time.

Topic 5: Cyber security

(1) Secure Information Fusion in Cyber-Physical Systems

Abstract: The concept of Cyber-Physical System (CPS) refers to the embedding of sensing, communication, control and computation into the physical spaces. Today, CPSs can be found in areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical process control, civil infrastructure, en- ergy, health-care, manufacturing and transportation, most of which are safety critical. Any successful aUack to such kind of systems can cause major disrup0ons, leading to great economic losses and may even endanger human lives. The fi er CPS malware (called Stuxnet) was found in July 2010 and has raised significant concerns about CPS security. The 0ght coupling between information and communication technologies and physical systems in CPS introduces new security concerns, requiring a rethinking and reexamining of the commonly used objec0ves and methods. In this talk, we consider the problem of information fusion in CPS under the assumption that some components inside the CPS may be malicious. We provide several fun- damental limits on the performance of the informa0on fusion for various aUack scenarios and design algorithms which achieve the limits.

Tentative workshoip schedule


Presentation Title


Time Slot



Opening Speach

Rong Su, Nanyang

Technological University


8:20 - 8:30


Qing-Shan Jia

Coordination and Optimal Control of Connected Automated Vehicles in Smart Cities

Christos G.

Cassandras, Boston University


8:30 - 9:00


Rong Su

Coordinated Connected Cars and Signals in

Smart Cities

Ardalan Vahidi,

Clemson University

9:00 - 9:30

Rong Su

Collaborative Road Freight Transport for Smart


Karl Henrik

Johansson, KTH

9:30 - 10:00

Rong Su

Tea Break


10:00 - 10:30


Data-Driven Dynamic Robust Resource

Allocation in Smart Cities

Fei Miao, University

of  Pennsylvania

10:30 - 11:00

Rong Su


The NTU-NXP Smart Mobility Test Bed for Connected Cars

Guan Yong Liang,

Nanyang Technological University


11:00 - 12:00


Rong Su



12:00 - 13:30


Controlling the Internet of Things - from Energy Saving to Fast Evacuation in Smart Buildings

(Samual) Qing-Shan

Jia, Tsinghua University


13:30 - 14:00


Rong Su

Token-based HVAC Scheduling for Smart Buildings

Rong Su, Nanyang

Technological University


14:00 - 14:30


Qing-Shan Jia

How to Trim 10 Terawatts of Electricity - Smart Buildings in the Tropics

Costas Spanos,

University of California at Berkeley


14:30 - 15:30


Rong Su

Tea Break


15:30 - 16:00


Smart Cities: Towards Integrated, Cross-Domain, Human-in-the-Loop Solutions

Tariq Samad,

University of Minnesota


16:00 - 16:30


Qing-Shan Jia


Controlling Smart Cities: Beyond “Cybernetics”?

Cedric Langbort,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain


16:30 - 17:00


Qing-Shan Jia

Secure Information Fusion in Cyber-Physical Systems

Yilin Mo, Nanyang

Technological University


17:00 - 17:30


Qing-Shan Jia

Large-Scale Correct-by-Construction Control Synthesis with Counting Constraints

Necmiye Ozay,

University of Michigan


17:30 - 18:00


Qing-Shan Jia